In the past, the vast majority of home solar energy storage systems used lead-acid batteries, but in recent years, this situation has begun to change significantly, and more and more home energy storage systems have begun to use lithium-ion batteries.
The maximum number of cycles of lead-acid batteries is about 1000, while the number of cycles of lithium-ion batteries is mostly between 1000-4000. Therefore, in the high frequency charge and discharge cycle of solar energy storage systems, users will have to replace lead-acid batteries frequently.
Lead-acid batteries also have the problem of low discharge and charge and discharge efficiency. They consume extra energy during use and cannot be charged and discharged as quickly as lithium battery systems. Therefore, under the same conditions, lead-acid batteries will require more capacity and space, that is, more volume and weight.
Lead is also a toxic heavy metal, even if it is recyclable, a slight mishandling can cause pollution.
The use of lithium ion batteries
In recent years, lithium-ion batteries have developed rapidly and have become the first choice for many devices. Power bank, mobile phone, notebook, car, etc. More and more home solar energy storage systems use lithium-ion batteries.
With the improvement and optimization of the lithium battery industry chain, the cost of lithium-ion batteries is falling. Relevant research data indicated in the November 2017 report that the installation cost of a lead-acid battery energy storage system for household solar energy ranges from US$598 to US$635 per kilowatt hour. The installation cost of lithium-ion batteries ranges from US$831 to US$1,089 per kilowatt hour. But the low cost of lead-acid batteries hides some additional costs, such as shorter working life and higher operating costs.
In terms of working life, lithium-ion batteries are expected to continue to operate for 8-10 years, and they can be charged and discharged to higher levels without significantly reducing the capacity.
Of course, there are many advantages of lithium-ion batteries. In short, lithium-ion batteries have more advantages than lead-acid batteries in energy storage applications, and as the cost decreases, they will be more and more widely used in energy storage systems.